Peruvian Lomo Saltado
This is a traditional, very easy dish to make. I might add that it's very popular with finicky kids and adults as well.
This is a traditional, very easy dish to make. I might add that it's very popular with finicky kids and adults as well.
My husband is Peruvian, his family introduced me to this, they have it almost every sunday.. Also living in Miami, there are tons of latin/south american restaurants that serve this dish. Tastes authentic, the only things I did was: marinate the meat in the vinegar and soy sauce,thinly slice hot yellow peppers add a bit of garlic and cumin. Also I've never liked how the potatoes are always soggy, so toss them in last when ready to serve the dish. I used large slices of RED onion and ROMA tomato along with cilantro, NOT parsley. One thing is this doesn't produce much juice or gravy, which is my family's favorite part to top white rice. I also serve spicy aji sauce on the side. The better cut of steak you use, the better this will be.Read More
This recipe had a good flavor but it was too "stew-y". Lomo saltado is supposed to be "stir-fried". There is no covering to let the meat cook in stir frying! The method of cooking has a big impact on the flavor. Here are grandma's bulletpoints: 1) Lomo saltado is made with *lomo*, meaning tenderloin. If you can get some (I get it when it's on sale and freeze some), please use that. There's no need to marinate a good tenderloin. And don't let the juices release. Stir fry, in a wok, with HIGH heat. You want the juices to release in your plate. 2) Make sure your onions are RED. (I have small kids, so I won't say anything about the frozen fries; it's a good shortcut) 3) no need to peel or seed tomato. 4) Grandma says parsley AND cilantro. She was the best cook in the world, so she should know. 5) You add the meat back just to bring all flavors together, 30 seconds or so (you're still stir frying at high heat). Do not overcook. I repeat: DO.NOT.OVERCOOK! Your vegetables need to be still crisp. 6) Have your crispy fries waiting and add them only at the end, a split second before serving, and if possible only to the portion that you're going to eat right away or they'll get soggy. There, now it's just like grandma's, that is: perfect.Read More
My husband is Peruvian, his family introduced me to this, they have it almost every sunday.. Also living in Miami, there are tons of latin/south american restaurants that serve this dish. Tastes authentic, the only things I did was: marinate the meat in the vinegar and soy sauce,thinly slice hot yellow peppers add a bit of garlic and cumin. Also I've never liked how the potatoes are always soggy, so toss them in last when ready to serve the dish. I used large slices of RED onion and ROMA tomato along with cilantro, NOT parsley. One thing is this doesn't produce much juice or gravy, which is my family's favorite part to top white rice. I also serve spicy aji sauce on the side. The better cut of steak you use, the better this will be.
This recipe had a good flavor but it was too "stew-y". Lomo saltado is supposed to be "stir-fried". There is no covering to let the meat cook in stir frying! The method of cooking has a big impact on the flavor. Here are grandma's bulletpoints: 1) Lomo saltado is made with *lomo*, meaning tenderloin. If you can get some (I get it when it's on sale and freeze some), please use that. There's no need to marinate a good tenderloin. And don't let the juices release. Stir fry, in a wok, with HIGH heat. You want the juices to release in your plate. 2) Make sure your onions are RED. (I have small kids, so I won't say anything about the frozen fries; it's a good shortcut) 3) no need to peel or seed tomato. 4) Grandma says parsley AND cilantro. She was the best cook in the world, so she should know. 5) You add the meat back just to bring all flavors together, 30 seconds or so (you're still stir frying at high heat). Do not overcook. I repeat: DO.NOT.OVERCOOK! Your vegetables need to be still crisp. 6) Have your crispy fries waiting and add them only at the end, a split second before serving, and if possible only to the portion that you're going to eat right away or they'll get soggy. There, now it's just like grandma's, that is: perfect.
I have made this meal several times. I never peel or de-seed the tomatoes. That's a waste of time. Make sure to use RED onions for better flavor. Don't use parsley, use cilantro!!1 Never use Ore-Ida frozen potatoes, they fall apart. Cut your own fresh potato fries or some other brand. I like to use peruvian aji salsas called aji panca and aji amarillo to spice up the beef. I just fry the salsas in oil for a bit and then add the beef to it. You can add garlic puree too. Finally, don't forget the touch of vinegar, it really makes a difference.
I'm Peruvian and also think this is a great recipe. Marinating the meat and adding cumin are great tips. Sometimes when I make this I bring home large fries from a fast food joint, then just throw them on top of the stir fry.
Wow, this was absolutely delicious! Imperative that the meat is marinated in the vinegar/soy sauce for at least a half an hour. Like others, I added cumin, garlic and subbed cilantro for the parsley. I used Ore Ida steak fries to much success! I did turn up the heat to almost a broil for an extra 4 minutes at the end to make them extra crispy. Make yourself a pisco sour, and try this recipe, it's a must!
My family is from Peru and this is a favorite when we visit Lima, and at home. I marinated the meat in the vinegar and soy sauce. Gave the meat a nice flavor. Used red onion and made my own french fries. Also used cilantro instead of parsley and added quite a bit of minced garlic. I used some aji amarillo in a bottle I purchased last time I was in Peru. Pretty much impossible to find fresh aji in the states from what I have seen. Served over rice! Yum :)
I first encountered Lomo Saltado in a small Latin restaurant in my area, where it quickly became a favorite. Unfortunately, the restaurant took this dish off the menu, so I was very pleased to discover it on this site and re-create it at home. As is, I think this recipe is OK. If you’re willing to invest a bit more time, however, it is a wonderful dish. 1) I’ve eaten meat and chicken versions of this recipe. I find the chicken to be better. 2) Do marinade the meat in the vinegar and soy sauce for at least an hour, if not several hours. The added tanginess is nice. 3) Ditch the frozen fries (does anyone really like Ore Ida?) and make your own. I agree, crispy, crunchy shoestring fries are best with this meal. I also season the fries with added pepper and paprika. 4) To serve, either place meat with some of the marinade on top of a “bed” of fries, or separate fries from the meat - but keep on the same plate! - so guests/family members can pick from both piles. This is good. I hope others try it despite the unusual name.
Lomo Saltado! I marinated my stir fry beef in red wine vinegar, soy sauce, garlic powder, and a little freshly ground black pepper while I prepared my vegatables, fries, and rice. I as able to find aji amarillo at my local Latino grocery. I used fresh chopped cilantro instead of parsley and I went with a red onion. Try adding strips of red bell pepper to sweeten the dish slightly and to add color and texture. For a video on how to prepare Lomo Saltado, I'd recommend Allreceipes' user Pedro's http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUywRYwY9gQ&feature=BFa&list=PLYH-mN8crBv2oA2hw-rF9R_lmilrt_ZAp
This is an good recipe. I would only add that yes, red onions are more tasty and more authentic. Also, I prefer my lomo saltado to be more crispy and "fresh" rather than "stewey", so i put the onions near the end so that they are just cooked, and I just put the fries on top at the end so they stay crispy. I always serve this with Peruvian white rice (simple- just fry up some garlic with a little bit of oil, put the rice in, let it fry a little, then put the water and let it cook.) and maduros (fried sweet plantains).
I am an American living in Lima, Peru, and I learned a lot about this dish from a Peruvian friend that cooked it for me. Since she doesn't use written recipes with measurements, I looked one up to combine these ideas with her suggestions. As others have said, marinate the meat before you cook it. I marinated beef tenderloin with red wine vinegar (some use red wine for this), soy sauce, pressed garlic cloves, cumin, oregano, salt, and black pepper. As others have mentioned, this dish is always cooked here in Peru with red onion. I soaked my onion in some water and vinegar to lessen the onion flavor since they are quite strong here. I do recommend taking out the seeds of the tomatoes (I used Roma) because that can add extra liquid that takes away from the desired stir-fry cooking style that stems from the Chinese influence in this dish. Don't cover it as it cooks - keep it "jumping" as the name implies.
Such a great recipe. My husband is Peruvian and this is his most favorite dish. I've made others in the past but never turned out this good. Next time I am going to use a little less vinegar. I did let the meat marinate for a couple of hours in the vinegar and soy sauce plus I added minced garlic. While cooking we put in a few pinches of cumin and topped the dish with cilantro. My husband loved it!!
I made this with rare seared tenderloin tipsand served it atop a citrus black bean stew and topped it with and Aji sauce I found on this site. Garnish with Orange slices and you have a meal fit for a king. I also didn't toss the fries in the sauce I just placed the meat and veggies over it like a gravy
My brothers Mother-in-law is from Peru and made this as a dinner when we were visiting a couple of yrs ago, I never forgot it (it was one of the best dishes I've ever eaten). I finally got up the courage to try to copy it using this recipe, expecting to be disappointed. It was almost exactly as I remembered, although she made homemade french fries which I will do next time. It is an easy recipe to make and ends up out of this world. I would actually rate this 10 stars if I could. Get the aji Amarillo pepper if you can it has a different flavor than other peppers. She also had a Peruvian Cheese sauce Out of Casa fresco cheese that was delicious over the top of it, I'll post the recipe under Peruvian aji Amarillo sauce!!! If you make this recipe you will not be disappointed :)
I can't believe these few ingredients make this delicious of a meal. Got the beef tri tip from Costco. Couldn't find the aji amarillo (jarred or otherwise) at our supermarket and had to buy the paste - used about a heaping teaspoonful and may use another half next time. Made the french fries with yukon golds as well and they came out fab. Served with brown rice and let everyone assemble before eating so the fries maintained some of their crunchiness.
Tastes authentic! I baked my own french fries though using a simple recipe off of this site and didn't cook them with the meat (previous recommendations to prevent sogginess). It was pretty good!
Very yummy.. only thing i would change is add more soy sauce...
Definitely change the parsley to cilantro and add garlic. Good recipe otherwise.
As another reviewer noted, Peruvian lomo saltado is really a South American stir fry (because of the large Asian immigrant population in Peru). My wife is Peruvian and I've been eating Peruvian food, like lomo saltado, for decades. First, it needs lots of chopped garlic. Second, it lacked much flavor because no cumin was in the recipe. Third, mix a tablespoon of corn starch in a 1/4 cup of water and mix into the lomo for the last 5 minutes to thicken the liquid. Lastly, never, ever put the French fries in the pan and steam them. Make them separately, then put them on top of fresh cooked white rice, then scoop the lomo on top.
Delicious - I used a red onion and balsamic vingar; more soy sauce and a little bit of lemon juice. This MUST be served with rice to be authenitic! I grew up in Peru - brings back great memories.
It was really good. But the only thing a little dry
Made this with tater-tots, which worked like tiny crispy sponges to soak up all of these great flavors!
Tastes so much better with fresh home-made french fries. For a truly authentic look, make sure you use red onions. Make sure you don't overcook the tomatoes, they should go in last.
I use Cilantro instead of Parsley, it adds another level of flavor to this dish, watch how I made this at www.youtube.com/pdrdas72
great just absolutely great!! love it!! super easy
I lived in Peru for a while and I love coming across recipes I've had abroad. I've made this a few times now, and these are my favorite modifications. I make my own fries. My changes to the recipe: I do not peel or seed the tomatoes. I use cilantro instead of parsley. I use leftover medium rare roast beef for the meat, cut into thick slices. I use half white vinegar and half white wine vinegar. I use an aji amarillo paste (1 heaping tablespoon of that for a nice flavor). My method: Heat oil, add onion and stir until cooked, then add tomatoes and cilantro. Add aji (if using paste), vinegar, soy sauce, dash of cumin, salt and pepper. Add cooked beef, then toss in french fries. Amazing and tastes authentic!
Good take on a Peruvian classic. A few small tips to make it even better- add some cumin to the beef when seasoning along with the salt and pepper. You can also add soy sauce or marinate it in soy sauce. The two biggest omissions for me are first that when you're adding the soy sauce and vinegar (although I personally use red wine over vinegar) you also should add some worcestershire sauce (although some recipes call for beef bouillon). Second at the very end, right before your done throw on some cilantro. The worcestershire and cilantro give it the really authentic Peruvian flavor in my opinion!
I am a Peruvian as well and this has been my favorite meal since my dad first introduced me to Peruvian food when I was little. A restaurant I especially recommend to get this meal at for people in Manhattan is Flor De Mayo in the Upper West Side (around 100th Street and Broadway)
I prepared this for my family the other night and it came out perfect. I used chicken instead of beef and I followed the advice of some of the previous reviews by marinating the chicken ahead of time. This tasted just as good if not better than what I've tried in the resteraunts. My family loved it!
Super quick to make and tasty! Next time I will make my own fried potatoes though, because McCain superfries are just as gross as I remember from my childhood. Couldn't find any aji amarillo, fresh or otherwise, at a couple of grocery stores so you may need to go to a specialty shop; I used cayenne pepper instead. I marinated beef tenderloin for approx 30 minutes beforehand in the vinegar/soy sauce/cayenne pepper mix with some salt and pepper and then poured in more vinegar and soy sauce once everything went back into the pan.
I followed this recipe to the T and had no problems. Absolutely delicious!
I prepared this dish for my husband and mother-in-law, both Peruvian. They enjoyed it! I did add half of the vinegar than what was called for in the recipe; my husband makes this often and he has never used vinegar as an ingredient. Still, the flavor was quite good. I did add quite a bit more than a dash of soy sauce and I fried the potatoes myself. Oh, and substituted cilantro for parsley. Seems like a lot of changes, but the base recipe is a good one.
I loved this! Great recipe - like we had in Lima. I couldn't find aji amarillo, so I substituted Hungarian Wax, which worked pretty well. I also added garlic and paprika after reading a few other recipes. Added a few pisco sours to go with it - perfect meal!
Very good ...it would be even better if I could stop overcooking the tomatoes :)
Delicious dish!! Fortunately I don't have to travel 300 miles to eat Lomo Saltado....
Always great but I like adding cumin and adobo to the spices
A friend from work from Peru recomended this to me as an authentic Peruvian dish. I was skeptical but it was actually very good. Interesting with the fries.
This tastes better if you use real potatoes , not frozen.
Yummy!!!!!!I used red onions instead.
This is pretty spectacular! My husband and I had this meal at a local Peruvian restaurant a few days ago. It was AMAZING SOOOO I just HAD to see if I could recreate it at home. With a few suggestions from other reviewers, I made it. It is so easy, yet it tastes so gourmet! I marinated the meat (I used a 1 lb rib eye steak)in red wine, garlic, Worcestershire sauce, and a few splashes of low sodium soy sauce. I sprinkled the meat with some Adobo seasoning and some cumin before putting it into the marinade. I didn't have the aji Amarillo pepper but I don't like spicy so I didn't miss it. I used regular tomatoes sliced into strips and I did remove the seeds at the same time to cut down on the liquid from them. I also used the red onion as suggested which is what was in the dish at the restaurant. I also used cilantro in place of the parsley. The entire meal cooked in a matter of minutes once everything was sliced up. I took another reviewer's suggestion to make the rice by frying some garlic in some oil then putting my rice into the pan and sautéed it for a minute before adding the water to finish cooking. I also made the fries myself and served them alongside the dish (again, also the way it was served in the restaurant). It is OUTSTANDING and tasted just like the restaurant's meal. Thank you for posting this recipe! I will be making this again....
Maybe it was because I used frozen french fries, but it's not like any lomo saltado I've ever had. I've done this recipe a couple of times--some with the modifications that are in other reviews, but it still doesn't taste right to me. This last time, my husband and I added way more soy sauce (closer to actual flavour), then we added stir fry sauce (and that really helped quite a bit!!). I'm a little disappointed, and I must say, I'm still waiting for the right lomo saltado recipe to come.
Easy and authentic! I usually make the green aji sauce to complement this dish. Amazing...
An absolutely gorgeous dish! I served it over oven-baked chips. But I served the leftover saltado over bulgar. We would choose bulgar any day! It was FAB! In keeping with the Peruvian theme, it would also be lovely served over quinoa.
I grew up in Peru and I second third and forth... Cumin! Cilantro! Red onions! For me the Cumin and Cilantro are key. I also like it more cooked quick and hot with plenty of oil. The combination of bold flavors, rich texture and fresh cilantro make me drool. And it is pretty quick to prepare when you get everything chopped. I once had it at a restaurant in the US with sesame oil- I totally didn't expect that but it actually was delicious. For an amazing, unique cold potato/ spicy cheese sauce dish that is unique to Peru, search "papas a la huancaina" on google or yahoo. This dish is a national classic and it highlights the 150 years of Chinese presence in Peru. The cooking method is from the wok stir frys of China. In Peru all peruvian restaurants are called "Chifas" When I lived in China, imagine my surprise when many meals began with the host and hostess telling all of us to chi fan! chi fan! (the "chi" rhymes with fur, but the pinyin way of spelling is chi. " Eat rice! " And in Peru they call fried rice arroz chowfa. Arroz is rice in Spanish. "Chow"fan is fried rice in Mandarin.
This recipe is very authentic. In Peru, there are also different versions of this recipe. A lot of the people toss broccoli in there, string beans cut diagonally, or cauliflower with the rest of the same ingredients.
This was a good starter recipe. I'm Peruvian so I know to use red onions and not peel the tomatoes. I also got rid of a lot of the liquid in the pan so as to avoid having a soggy dish. This is supposed to be a bit juicy, but not soggy. I added an extra dash of soy at the end to enhance the flavors. Overall it was pretty good!
This is a basic unauthentic version of lomo saltado! Replace parsley with cilantro. Onion must be specified as RED onion. French fries should be wide steak-cut variety. It’s basically impossible to find fresh aji amarillo (Peruvian yellow peppers) in the US, but you can find the purée in jars in international grocery stores. Sauté some aji amarillo paste with the steak for a close replication of the real thing.
Will make again.
WAY too much vinegar and not enough spices
Great, I used the crockpot for the meat and added french fries when I was ready to serve.
Love this dish! I used flat iron steak and just salt and peppered after slicing. I let it "marinade" for an hour before stir frying. I also used cilantro instead of parsley. Made the Aji recipe found online, and used fresh local potatoes for the fries. I tossed the fries with the meat JUST prior to serving. Tasted just like my favorite Peruvian restaurant... And we have lots leftover! Perfection!
Very easy to make and very tasty! Family loves it
I also used pureed cilantro instead of parsley. I season the meat with just a little Adobo instead of salt and pepper
I'm Peruvian and this recipe does capture the taste of authentic lomo saltado. I fried my own potatoes and used red wine vinegar instead of white. With red onions,yum, this is great!
I really liked this recipe....i will definitely make again!
After reading reviews, I modified based on comments. SO; We skipped the french fry part. I swapped the meat out for a tenderloin sliced 1/8 to 1/4 inch thick. Used Red onion as per tradition & added fresh chopped cilantro- same amount as the parsley. Came out amazing!
This was one of the best meals I've ever tasted. My boyfriend is Peruvian and he said it tasted just like his Mom makes it.
Substituted the triple-tip for top sirloin (it's a Texas thing) and used crinkle fries for added texture. It was comparable to what I ate is Cusco. GREAT.
This recipe is great! I made a couple adjustments based on the comments (red onion, roma tomatoes, garlic, cumin, & cilantro instead of parsely). I also threw in a couple different peppers (red, green, yellow) and topped mine with an egg. That is how my friends who are Ecuadorian do it.
Easy recipe and it taste delicious
It was simple delicious.
Super delicious & incredibly easy! I used Checkers french fries, and added oregano and parsley because I did not have cilantro. Serve with a touch of pasta de rocoto (Peruvian hot pepper paste). My wife was born in Peru It has been bestowed upon this American the title of Honorary Peruvian!
I used a red onion and made my own french fries, Overall a great recipe!
it was ok, still looking for the perfect recipe with the perfect tang
Me gusta el receta mucho pero yo pienso que Las papitas fritas estarian mas delicioso y crujientes hecho en casa al contrario de usar papitas frisadas.
This wasn't the quality that we had in Lima, but it was still pretty good. It just seemed to be missing something, and maybe it was the aji Amarillo. We had to use a Serrano pepper in its place, since we couldn't find the aji Amarillo locally. Not a bad recipe, but seemed to become more of a stew than a stir fry like we had in Peru.
I used yellow pepper as I couldn’t find ají in my grocery store.
I used chicken instead. Very yummy
This recipe was excellent! I did use Gina's suggestion and used Roma tomatoes, red onion, cilantro, and cumin which combined gave it a great taste. I will definitely be making this again, very easy to prepare!
It was great I added quartered red onion which I waited before then I added Badia complete seasoning to the meat while I marinated it in the vinegar soy sauce garlic powder and olive oil.when i cooked it I added the opinions and tomatoes quartered also along with the cilantro and parsley. It was amazing. I used the shaved beef at Trader Joe's and Aldis
Great recipe! Add some cumin and it tastes just like my mom used to make it. You can also omit the potatoes and serve it in a bun. I would recommend a little longer cooking time at the end so the juices thicken.
Delicious recipe. I replaced the beef with chicken breast and didn't add the french fries to the mix. I added extra soy sauce and finally served it over the fries and white rice on the side.
I live in Peru and made this recipe. I followed it exactly and was super, duper pleased. It tastes very authentic.
We lived in Peru for two years and this was one dish we missed terribly! I made a few adjustments to mine though. I used Deer steak cut into strips and marinaded them in italian dressing over night. I also added some texas pete to the meat while it was cooking! I also used Roma tomatoes and left the seeds and peeling on them! Awesome recipe and GREAT meal!!
Delicious!!!! Loved it!
Made some changes to it added culantro and Ají amarillo. Plus no soy sauce used Leon Perrin instead. Used fresh potatoes. Made tacu tacu instead of white rice with this meal. It was awesome.
Delicious! But my potatoes turned into mush. I definitely agree. Stir frying is the way to go!
This was a really easy recipe with a ton of flavor! I added cumin and garlic powder (1 tsp each). I fried up some fresh cut potatoes. I serve the French fries on the side to keep them crisp. It was delicious! Next time, I would add either a side salad or a simple green veggie. It is a lot of meat and potatoes!
very good and easy. I use balsamic vinegar and soy sauce in equal amounts to make sauce and splash in some pisco when cooking it. Very similar to Peru
This recipe tastes great! I substitute parsley for cilantro.
So I made it exactly the way the recipe said except had to substitute the peppers for aji paste since it’s hard to find in Canada. My husband said the onions and tomatoes are not to be overcooked and should have a bite to them. Also he said never to peel the tomatoes. Otherwise he said the flavour was good but wasn’t like what he grew up eating in Lima.
I made this for the International Festival for my daughter's middle school. The kids ate up a recipe that was five times the size of the posted recipe in minutes. They loved it. I thought it tasted OK, but it looked like someone threw up their Burger King. In defense of the recipe, my twenty year old daughter just finished a semester of college in Cusco, Peru and she said the recipe was very authentic.
Turned out god made with stir fry beef, a thicker beef would’ve made more tender but flavor was very good. I liked how soft the fries got when you steam on top of the meat. Fiancé said def 4 stars.
I am peruvian and normally make this dish frequently. The onions should not be all the way transparent. They should be cooked for a little bit but still be crunchy when you eat it.
Forget the vinegar...
Really good. I didn't have any of the peppers, so I just settled for yellow peppers i found at the market. I added cumin, a little more garlic. And made my own fries. I thought it was going to be bland at first, but it was really good. Husband loved it with the Aji sauce, also on this website. I preferred cilantro with it.
So good! This is now in the rotation.
Exceptional! Like others have said, marinate the meat beforehand. As I couldn't get any yellow chili pepper, I used a green Thai pepper. I would also recommend either making the fries yourself from scratch or getting them at a take-away.
This dish was good! Very rich in flavor, so I wish I would've had some rice made to level it out a bit. My hubby really liked it, and it was fairly easy to make.
This was an easy and delicious recipe. I did not have any french fries on hand but I had some tater tots in the freezer I baked off. Turned out great. I also used cilantro, red onion, garlic and kept the potatoes separate instead of adding them into the pan with the sauce to finish as some other reviewers suggested.
It came out great! My first time making this.
Incredible dish! I marinated the beef in the soy sauce and vinegar with cumin and garlic, as suggested by a couple of prior reviewers. I also added only half of a yellow chili pepper, since I don’t do too well with super spicy food. It’s a new favorite!
Omg so yummy and easy to make
This recipe is fantastic! I came out perfect. I had to use skirt steak cause tri tip is not common around my way. But it was tender and worked out well.
I added red and green pepper as well as a side of corn.. yes I will do it again.
Made homemade fries and grilled the tri tips. Used seasoning and only red and yellow peppers. Loved it.
One of the most delicious dish from Peru and so easy to make! It seems it is true, the similar the cooking, the more delicious is the food.
Loveeeeeeeeed it. My husben is peruvin and could not get enough of it. I give it a 5...
Love this recipe. Made it exactly as planned
I've made this several times, I make the fries in the oven with a bit of garlic powder and olive oil. Big surprise when we were served this in Peru! It came with rice and a poached egg. I always use a wok and it is a quick, tasty dish.