Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a casserole dish.
Combine broccoli and vegetable broth in a pot and cook over medium heat until broccoli is almost tender, about 5 minutes. Remove with a slotted spoon, drain, and add to the casserole dish.
Combine cream cheese, cream, and a few tablespoons of the vegetable broth from cooking the broccoli. Season with Italian seasoning, salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Distribute cream cheese mixture on top of the broccoli. Sprinkle with Cheddar cheese and butter pieces.
Bake in the preheated oven until cheese is melted and golden brown, about 45 minutes.