Heat olive oil in a skillet over medium heat. Season salmon fillets with salt and pepper and dredge in flour. Place fillets in the skillet. Cook until browned, quickly flipping the salmon halfway through, about 5 minutes total. Remove from the skillet for a moment.
Add lemon juice to the skillet and scrape the bottom with a wooden spoon. Add broth and capers. Return salmon to the skillet. Cook until fish flakes easily with a fork and sauce is reduced by half, 6 to 8 minutes more. Serve with sauce drizzled on top.