Combine green chile peppers, coconut, ginger, and garlic in the bowl of a food processor; grind into a paste.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add curry paste and cook and stir for 1 to 2 minutes. Add onions, cauliflower, potatoes, peas, turmeric, and coriander. Season with salt. Cook until vegetables soften slightly, about 5 minutes. Cover with water and increase heat to high. Bring to a boil, reduce heat, and simmer until water has reduced and vegetables are tender, 25 to 30 minutes.
Sprinkle with fresh cilantro and garam masala right before serving.