Combine water, garlic, bay leaf, and salt inside a multi-functional pressure cooker (such as Instant Pot(R)). Place steamer in the pot. Add artichokes, trimmed top facing up; drizzle with lemon juice. Close and lock the lid and select Steam function. Set timer for 10 minutes.
Release pressure carefully using the quick-release method according to manufacturer's instructions, about 5 minutes. Unlock and remove the lid.