Heat oil in a large skillet over high heat. Add ground turkey and cook until well browned, 5 to 7 minutes. Add carrots, onion, celery, garlic, thyme, and red pepper flakes. Cook and stir until vegetables are tender, 5 to 10 minutes. Drain and discard grease, if necessary. Add white wine; cook and stir until almost completely evaporated, about 5 minutes. Add tomato sauce, tomato juice, and parsley. Reduce heat and simmer until sauce reaches a thick consistency, about 20 minutes.
Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Add penne and cook, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes. Drain and return to the pot. Add the sauce and Parmesan cheese; mix well. Season with salt and pepper.