Beat sugar and butter in a large bowl with an electric mixer until light and fluffy. Beat in eggs, egg yolk, green food coloring, and peppermint extract until smooth.
Combine flour, baking powder, baking soda, cream of tartar, and kosher salt in a separate bowl. Mix into egg mixture until dough comes together. Fold in chocolate chips. Cover dough and refrigerate until firm enough to scoop, about 1 hour.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Line 2 baking sheets with parchment paper.
Drop spoonfuls of dough 2 inches apart onto the baking sheets.
Bake in the preheated oven until edges are golden, 8 to 10 minutes. Cool on the baking sheet for 1 minute before removing to a wire rack to cool completely.