Toast cumin in a skillet over medium heat until fragrant, being careful not to burn it, about 1 minute. Cool and grind in a mortar and pestle.
Heat oil in a large, heavy pot over medium-low heat and cook onions until soft and translucent, about 10 minutes. Add garlic and cook for 1 minute. Stir in cumin, tomatoes, cilantro, roasted red peppers, chili powder, mild paprika, oregano, smoked paprika, cayenne, and 1 teaspoon salt. Bring to a simmer and cook for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally.
Add all beans and simmer over low heat until flavors are well combined, at least 30 minutes. Season with more salt and sherry vinegar.