Place rice in a saucepan and cover with water. Mix with your fingers until water is cloudy; drain. Repeat once more. Add 1 1/2 cup water and 1 teaspoon salt. Bring to a boil; cook for 1 minute. Reduce heat, cover, and simmer until water is absorbed, about 12 minutes. Remove from heat and uncover.
Mix remaining 1/2 teaspoon salt, chicken breasts, and cornstarch together in a bowl.
Set a wok or large skillet over high heat and add oil. Add chicken, sugar snap peas, and red bell pepper. Cook, without stirring, for 1 minute. Stir or toss until chicken is lightly browned, about 4 minutes.
Whisk soy sauce, rice wine vinegar, garlic, sugar, and chili garlic sauce together in a bowl. Pour into the wok. Reduce heat to medium-low, cover, and cook until chicken is no longer pink in the center, 3 to 4 minutes.
Divide rice among 4 plates. Top with chicken and sauce. Garnish with green onions.