Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a 9x13-inch baking dish with cooking spray.
Cook and stir beef, onion, and garlic in a skillet over medium heat until beef is browned, about 5 minutes. Stir in corn, tomatoes, chili powder, and salt; simmer until flavors combine, about 20 minutes. Stir in cornmeal. Add tomato juice and olives.
Pour beef mixture into the prepared baking dish.
Bake in the preheated oven until hot and bubbly, about 30 minutes. Sprinkle Cheddar cheese on top. Continue baking until cheese is melted, about 5 minutes.