Mix cornbread mix, milk, and egg together in a bowl until smooth.
Combine ground beef, onion, and jalapeno pepper in a large oven-proof skillet; cook and stir until beef is browned, about 5 minutes. Stir in enchilada sauce, salsa, corn, and chipotle pepper until heated through, about 5 minutes. Pour cornbread batter on top.
Bake in the preheated oven until top is golden brown, about 40 minutes. Sprinkle Cheddar cheese over the top. Continue baking until cheese is melted, about 5 minutes more. Let stand 10 to 15 minutes before serving.