Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook egg noodles in the boiling water, stirring occasionally until tender yet firm to the bite, 8 to 10 minutes. Drain.
Melt butter in a saucepan over medium-low heat, about 2 minutes. Add garlic and cook until simmering, about 1 minute. Add heavy cream. Increase heat to medium and bring to a boil; simmer, stirring occasionally, until Alfredo sauce is reduced by half, about 20 minutes.
Slowly whisk lemon zest and juice into the Alfredo sauce to avoid curdling. Stir in Parmesan, ricotta, and Romano cheeses until melted, 2 to 3 minutes. Stir in basil, salt, and pepper; cook for 2 to 3 minutes more.