Combine sugar and water in a microwave-safe bowl. Microwave until water is hot, 30 to 45 seconds. Stir until sugar dissolves into a syrup. Let cool.
Transfer syrup to a large pitcher. Pour in Cabernet Sauvignon, brandy, and triple sec. Add apples, orange wedges, and orange juice. Squeeze juice from lemon wedges into the pitcher; add wedges to the pitcher. Refrigerate until flavors combine, 12 to 24 hours.
Stir citrus-flavored soda into the sangria before serving.