Prick sweet potato all over with a fork. Place on a microwave-safe plate. Microwave, turning once, until tender, 5 to 8 minutes. Cool until easily handled, about 5 minutes. Peel and mash with a fork.
Sift whole wheat flour, all-purpose flour, brown sugar, baking powder, 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, and salt together in a bowl. Rub in cubed butter with your fingers until mixture is the consistency of fine crumbs. Mix in mashed sweet potato, orange juice, and orange zest until dough comes together. Gather dough into a ball; freeze for 10 minutes.
Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Grease a small baking sheet.
Divide chilled dough into 2 pieces. Shape each piece into a ball; pat gently to form a 2-inch round. Place rounds on the baking sheet.
Mix 1/2 teaspoon white sugar and 1 pinch cinnamon together in a bowl. Sprinkle over the shortcake rounds.
Bake in the preheated oven until golden brown, 12 to 15 minutes. Transfer shortcakes to a wire rack to cool completely.
Mix 1 teaspoon water and cornstarch together in a small bowl until smooth.
Combine strawberries, 1/4 cup water, and 2 tablespoons white sugar in a saucepan. Bring to a boil; stir. Simmer until strawberries start to break down, about 5 minutes. Reduce heat; stir in cornstarch mixture. Cook until strawberry sauce is slightly thickened, about 1 minute.
Whisk farmers cheese, sour cream, and confectioners' sugar together in a bowl to make cream.
Cut each shortcake in half. Spoon cream mixture over the bottom halves; cover with top halves. Serve strawberry sauce on top.