Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Cook and stir onions and garlic in the hot oil until translucent, about 5 minutes. Stir in eggplant, red chile pepper, cumin seeds, coriander seeds, saffron, and salt; cook until eggplant starts to soften, about 5 minutes.
Stir chickpeas, green olives, basmati rice, and lemon slices into the skillet. Pour in vegetable broth. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat, cover, and simmer until rice is tender, about 20 minutes. Fold in cilantro using a fork.