Heat oil in a large pot over high heat. Reduce heat to medium-high; cook and stir onion in the hot oil until golden, 3 to 5 minutes. Stir in beef strips, cumin, and black pepper; cook until beef is browned, about 5 minutes. Stir in tomato paste and cook for 2 to 3 minutes.
Stir carrot into the pot; cook until coated with tomato paste, 2 to 3 minutes. Add green bell pepper; cook for 1 minute. Add potatoes and celery; cook for 5 minutes. Pour in water; bring to a boil. Season water with salt. Reduce heat to low and simmer soup until potatoes are soft, about 40 minutes.
Stir parsley and garlic into the soup. Simmer until garlic is soft, 10 to 15 minutes.
Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook noodles in the boiling water, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, 3 to 5 minutes. Rinse and drain well. Divide among serving bowls. Ladle hot soup over noodles.