Heat olive oil in the pot of an electric pressure cooker (such as Instant Pot(R)) on the "Saute" setting. Add onion and carrot; cook and stir until onion is soft, 3 to 5 minutes. Stir in minced garlic, garlic powder, onion powder, salt, and pepper. Add cauliflower florets, ham, and chicken broth.
Seal pressure cooker and close the steam vent. Bring to high pressure according to manufacturer's instructions; cook for 2 minutes. Release pressure using the quick-release method according to manufacturer's instructions. Stir in coconut milk.