Heat oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add tofu; cook and stir until browned, about 5 minutes. Stir in carrots, celery, and broccoli; cook until starting to soften, about 5 minutes. Add cabbage, garlic, parsley, savory, and rosemary; cook until fragrant, 2 to 3 minutes.
Pour chicken stock into the pot. Add split peas, spinach, quinoa, whole ancho chile pepper, whole cayenne pepper, and bay leaf. Bring to a boil; reduce heat and simmer, stirring occasionally, until split peas soften and break down, about 1 hour. Add water if soup appears too thick.
Season soup with salt and pepper. Discard ancho chile pepper, cayenne pepper, and bay leaf before serving.