Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a 6-inch baking pan.
Spread almonds on a baking sheet.
Toast almonds in the preheated oven until they turn golden brown and become fragrant, about 5 minutes.
Combine sugar and butter in a large bowl; beat with an electric mixer until creamy. Beat in yogurt and eggs. Mix in flour, baking soda, nutmeg, and salt. Fold 1/2 cup toasted almonds and dates into the batter.
Pour batter into the prepared pan. Top with remaining 1/4 cup toasted almonds.
Bake in the preheated oven until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean, 50 to 60 minutes.