Bring to a large pot of water to a boil. Add carrots; cook until slightly softened, 2 to 3 minutes. Drain and transfer to the bowl of ice water to cool quickly. Drain.
Combine 1 1/2 cup water, vinegar, sugar, onion, currants, red wine, black garlic, jalapeno flakes, celery flakes, dill weed, star anise, and bay leaf in a large saucepan. Bring to a boil, stirring occasionally. Cook until sugar dissolves, about 3 minutes. Remove from heat and add carrots.
Cool carrot mixture to room temperature, about 15 minutes. Pour into a large jar or airtight container. Refrigerate until flavors meld, at least 24 hours.