Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil; add penne and cook, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes. Drain.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add chicken, 1/4 cup salsa, garlic, salt, and pepper; cook and stir until chicken is browned, 5 to 7 minutes. Stir in cream of chicken soup, pinto beans, corn, and green chile peppers.
Stir cooked penne and Cheddar cheese into the skillet until cheese is melted. Transfer to a baking dish; scatter tortilla chips on top.
Bake in the preheated oven until top is golden brown, about 20 minutes. Serve with remaining 1/4 cup salsa.