Heat oil in a large pot over medium heat. Cook and stir onion and jalapeno pepper in the hot oil until softened, 4 to 5 minutes. Stir in garlic; cook until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Stir in white beans, carrots, and quinoa.
Pour vegetable broth, diced tomatoes, and soy sauce into the pot; bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer, covered, until carrots and quinoa are tender, about 20 minutes. Add red bell pepper; cook until softened, about 5 minutes. Stir in peanut butter until dissolved into the broth, about 1 minute.
Garnish soup with cilantro, hot sauce, lime juice, and black pepper.