Preheat oven to 325 degrees F (165 degrees C). Line a muffin tin with medium-sized cupcake liners.
Combine 3/4 cup butter and 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons white sugar in a large bowl; beat with an electric mixer until fluffy. Beat in eggs and 1 teaspoon vanilla extract. Beat in flour gradually. Divide batter evenly among the cupcake liners.
Bake in the preheated oven until golden, 15 to 20 minutes. Transfer to a wire rack to cool, about 20 minutes.
Beat 1 cup plus 2 1/2 tablespoons confectioners' sugar, 1/4 cup butter, and 1 teaspoon vanilla extract together in a bowl to make buttercream filling.
Scoop some of the center out of each cupcake, keeping it in one piece. Fill each hole with raspberry jam. Top cupcakes with buttercream. Cut the scooped-out centers into 2 pieces and position them in the buttercream to look like butterfly wings.