Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook bow-tie pasta at a boil, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 12 minutes. Drain.
Season chicken breasts with 1 teaspoon Creole seasoning.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add chicken; cook and stir until no longer pink in the center, about 7 minutes. Transfer to a plate. Cook and stir onion, red bell pepper, and green bell pepper in the same skillet until tender, 6 to 7 minutes. Return chicken to the skillet.
Pour Alfredo sauce into the skillet; add remaining 1 teaspoon Creole seasoning. Reduce heat to low; cook and stir until sauce is heated through, 3 to 5 minutes.
Serve chicken and sauce over bow-tie pasta. Garnish with Parmesan cheese.