Place sugar beans into a large container and cover with several inches of cool water; let soak, 8 hours to overnight.
Combine beef chuck and onions in a large pot over medium heat. Cook until beef is tender and falling off the bone, about 1 1/2 hour. Transfer beef to a cutting board; discard bones and cut beef into bite-size pieces. Place onions in a bowl.
Pour sugar beans and their soaking water into the pot. Bring to a boil; reduce heat and simmer, adding more water if needed, until beans are tender, about 1 hour. Stir in beef pieces and onions; bring soup to a boil.
Dissolve beef bouillon cube in 2 1/2 tablespoons hot water in a bowl. Stir in wine, tomato paste, dry soup mix, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, and cayenne pepper. Gradually mix into the boiling soup. Reduce heat and simmer until flavors combine, about 10 minutes.