Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil; add penne and cook, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes. Drain, reserving 1/2 cup pasta water. Return pasta to the pot; cover and keep warm.
Heat olive oil in a skillet over medium heat; place pork in skillet and sprinkle with cider vinegar. Cook and stir pork until barely pink at the center, about 3 minutes. Stir zucchini, onion, and garlic into pork; cook and stir until vegetables are soft, about 7 minutes. Pour pasta sauce and reserved pasta water into pork mixture; cook until heated through, about 3 minutes.
Place pasta in a warmed serving dish; stir cheese into sauce mixture and pour over pasta. Toss pasta with sauce and serve.