Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook linguine until firm to the bite, about 9 minutes. Add broccoli and carrots; cook until linguine is tender, about 2 minutes more. Drain.
Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet or wok. Add steak slices; cook and stir until browned on all sides, about 4 minutes. Stir in sesame dressing and teriyaki sauce. Cook until sauce is thickened, about 2 minutes.
Stir linguine, broccoli, and carrots into the sauce. Increase heat to high and cook until noodles are slightly browned, 2 to 3 minutes.