Place edamame pods in a microwave-safe bowl; add 1/4 cup water. Cover and microwave on high until tender, 4 to 6 minutes. Drain.
Place sesame seeds in a skillet over medium heat; toast until lightly golden, about 2 minutes. Add sugar, soy sauce, olive oil, and red pepper flakes. Simmer until soy sauce reduces and thickens slightly, about 2 minutes. Add edamame; toss until coated, 1 to 2 minutes.