Bring lemon juice, soy sauce, brown sugar, fish sauce, red pepper flakes, and cornstarch to a simmer in a saucepan over medium heat until sauce is thickened, 3 to 5 minutes.
Heat 2 tablespoons olive oil in a non-stick skillet over medium heat. Add garlic, jalapeno peppers, and peppercorns; cook and stir until fragrant, 1 to 2 minutes. Add remaining olive oil, onions, snap peas, cherry tomatoes, yellow bell pepper, red bell pepper, and green bell pepper; cook and stir until peppers are tender, about 8 minutes. Add shrimp, cilantro, and mint; cook and stir until shrimp is bright pink on the outside and the meat is opaque, 2 to 3 minutes.
Place shrimp mixture on a serving platter with rice and bean sprouts; pour sauce on top.