Rinse and drain rice 3 times. Place rice in a bowl and pour in enough water to cover; set aside to soak.
Heat oil in a large saucepan over medium heat; cook and stir onion, ginger, cumin seeds, fenugreek, and turmeric until onion just begins to brown, 5 to 10 minutes. Add garlic and continue to cook and stir until onions are browned, 5 to 10 minutes more.
Drain rice and mix into onion mixture; cook and stir until rice is dry and lightly toasted, about 3 minutes. Stir peas, carrot, green beans, and cauliflower into rice mixture; pour in broth. Cover saucepan and bring liquid to a rapid boil; reduce heat to low and simmer until rice is tender, 12 to 15 minutes.
Remove saucepan from heat and fluff rice with a fork. Stir cilantro into rice, return lid, and let rest for 3 to 5 minutes.