Place shrimp in a bowl and pour in enough water to cover; set aside until shrimp are rehydrated, about 10 minutes. Drain.
Mix 1 tablespoon cornstarch and 1 tablespoon water together in a bowl until a smooth paste forms. Mix sugar, soy sauce, and 1 teaspoon salt into cornstarch paste until marinade is well combined. Stir pork into marinade moving the spoon in one direction.
Heat 1 tablespoon peanut oil in a large skillet over high heat; fry shrimp until fragrant, 2 to 3 minutes. Add shrimp to pork mixture, stirring in 1 direction until it reaches a paste-like consistency.
Sprinkle salt over bitter melon and let sit for 5 minutes.
Bring a pot of water to a boil; add bitter melon and cook for 3 minutes. Drain well.
Stuff each bitter melon slice with pork mixture and sprinkle cornstarch evenly over each.
Heat peanut oil in a large skillet over high heat. Reduce heat to medium and fry stuffed bitter melon until brown, 3 to 5 minutes per side. Transfer bitter melon to a serving plate.
Mix 1/2 cup water, oyster sauce, and 1 teaspoon sugar together in a bowl until oyster sauce mixture is smooth.
Heat 1 tablespoon peanut oil in the same skillet over high heat. Cook and stir black bean-garlic sauce, red pepper, and garlic until fragrant, 3 to 4 minutes. Add oyster sauce mixture and stir until heated through, 1 to 2 minutes. Reduce heat to medium; add stuffed bitter melons and simmer, 5 to 6 minutes.
Mix 1 tablespoon cornstarch and 1 tablespoon water together in a small bowl until a smooth paste forms; stir into skillet until sauce is thickened, 1 to 2 minutes.