Combine black rice and water in a large saucepan. Bring to a boil. Cover, reduce heat, and simmer until rice is tender, 45 to 50 minutes. Remove from heat. Let stand, covered, 10 minutes. Stir gently and measure out 3 cups; set aside.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add onion; cook and stir until translucent, about 5 minutes. Add garlic; cook and stir until golden, about 1 minute. Remove from heat.
Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Grease a baking sheet.
Mash kidney beans in a large bowl until smooth. Add 3 cups cooked black rice, onion and garlic mixture, chile powder, paprika, turmeric, ketchup, nutritional yeast, bread crumbs, and vital wheat gluten, stirring well after each addition with a spoon or your hands until mixture is the consistency of soft dough. Shape into 8 patties and arrange on baking sheet.
Bake patties in the preheated oven until browned, about 20 minutes. Flip patties and continue to cook until second side is browned, about 20 minutes more.