Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil; add penne and cook, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes. Drain.
Heat oil and butter together in a deep skillet over medium-high heat. Saute onion, mushrooms, and bell pepper in the hot oil-butter mixture until softened, 5 to 10 minutes.
Mix maple syrup, garlic, and sugar into onion mixture, reduce heat to medium-low, and simmer until mixture is reduced and almost caramelized, about 5 minutes. Add chicken, cream, and curry powder to maple syrup mixture and cook until heated through and thickened, 7 to 10 minutes. Serve sauce over penne pasta.