Heat oil in a Dutch oven or heavy pot over medium heat. Cook and stir onion, celery, bell pepper, and garlic in hot oil until soft, 5 to 7 minutes; add diced tomatoes and green chiles, tomato sauce, sugar, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/2 teaspoon black pepper, and bay leaves. Reduce heat to medium low and continue cooking until vegetables are soft, about 30 minutes.
Put flour into a large sealable plastic bag. Season flour with salt and pepper. Add shrimp to bag, close bag, and shake to coat shrimp in seasoned flour.
Stir tomato juice into the mixture in the Dutch oven. Reduce heat to low and cook until the juice reduces slightly, about 5 minutes; add shrimp and cook until shrimp turn pink, about 5 minutes. Remove Dutch oven from heat and let the residual heat finish cooking the shrimp until they are bright pink and the meat is no longer translucent, about 5 minutes more.