Preheat an outdoor grill for medium-high heat and lightly oil the grate.
Place corn on hot grill and cook until charred on all sides, about 15 minutes. Remove corn from grill and cool.
Pour lime juice into a bowl; add cilantro, cumin, salt, and pepper. Pour olive oil into lime juice mixture while continuously whisking until dressing is smooth. Add cabbage and jalapeno pepper to dressing and toss.
Cut corn from cob and mix into cabbage mixture. Crumble queso fresco over slaw; toss well.