Heat oil in a saucepan over medium-high heat. Saute jalapeno peppers and garlic in hot oil until fragrant, about 1 minute.
Pour vegetable broth into the saucepan. Stir black beans, tomatoes, quinoa, corn, and salt into the broth. Bring to a boil, reduce heat to low, and simmer, covered, until the liquid is fully absorbed into the quinoa, 20 to 25 minutes.
Fluff quinoa with a fork. Stir in cilantro and lime juice.