Heat olive oil in a pot over medium heat; saute onion and garlic until onion is transparent, about 10 minutes. Add chipotle peppers; cook and stir until fragrant, about 1 minute. Add chili powder and cumin; cook and stir until mixture is heated through, about 5 more minutes.
Stir broth, pinto beans, garbanzo beans, and black beans into onion mixture; bring to a boil. Add tomatoes, reduce heat, and simmer until soup is heated through and flavors have blended, about 20 minutes. Add corn and cinnamon; cook, stirring occasionally, for 15 more minutes. Season with cayenne pepper, salt, and black pepper.