Heat a large pot over medium heat; cook and stir ground pork, onions, and bell pepper until pork is no longer pink, 5 to 7 minutes. Season with salt to taste and drain.
Combine water, masa harina, coffee, chili powder, cumin, garlic powder, salt, oregano, and black pepper in a large bowl; stir until smooth. Pour coffee mixture into ground pork mixture and add tomato juice and tomato sauce; bring to a boil. Stir in smoked sausage and brown sugar. Cover and reduce heat to medium-low. Simmer for 4 hours, stirring often.