Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook linguine at a boil until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes; drain.
Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium-low heat. Cook and stir garlic in hot oil until fragrant and golden, 3 to 5 minutes. Gently stir anchovy paste, capers, and caper juice into oil.
Stir tomatoes, olives, oregano, and sugar into hot oil mixture, increase heat to medium, and cook until fragrant and heated through, about 10 minutes. Remove skillet from heat and stir in basil and parsley. Season with salt and black pepper. Pour sauce over linguine and serve.