Heat the olive oil in a large soup pot over medium-low heat; cook and stir onion in the oil until translucent, about 5 minutes. Stir chicken broth, tomato juice, diced tomatoes, and water into the pot; bring to a boil.
Stir potatoes, cauliflower, celery, herbes de Provence, sugar, salt, black pepper, and bay leaves into the pot; reduce heat, cover, and simmer, stirring occasionally, for 1 hour.
Return soup to a boil, stir in macaroni, and cook until macaroni is tender yet firm to the bite, about 6 minutes. Remove soup from heat; let stand for 5 minutes before serving.