Heat a large skillet over medium-high heat. Cook and stir beef, onion, and garlic in the hot skillet until beef is browned and crumbly, 5 to 7 minutes; season with salt and pepper. Transfer beef mixture to a bowl.
Put cabbage and water into the skillet; bring water to a boil, reduce heat to medium-low, place a cover on the skillet, and cook cabbage at a simmer until soft, about 30 minutes.
Stir beef mixture and tomato soup into the cabbage mixture; cook until hot, about 5 minutes.