Stir red wine, sliced onions, red wine vinegar, and rosemary together in a large pot. Place beef in wine mixture, cover the bowl with plastic wrap, and marinate in the refrigerator 8 hours to overnight.
Remove meat from pot, pat roast dry, and reserve marinade in the pot. Cut four small slits in roast; insert garlic cloves into the slits.
Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Cook roast in hot oil until browned, 3 to 5 minutes per side.
Stir tomato paste into reserved marinade in the pot. Transfer browned roast to the marinade. Mix prunes, carrots, celery root, bay leaf, cloves, salt, pepper, and paprika around roast. Bring mixture to a boil; reduce heat to low, stir in Prosecco, partially cover the pot, and simmer, adding water as necessary, until meat is tender, 3 to 6 hours.