Fill a large pot with lightly salted water and bring to a rolling boil. Stir in egg noodles and return to a boil. Cook noodles uncovered, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 6 minutes. Drain.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Lightly grease a 9x13-inch baking pan and layer cooked egg noodles on the bottom.
Mix cottage cheese, cream cheese, and sour cream together in a bowl.
Heat a large skillet over medium heat. Add ground beef; cook and stir until nearly browned, about 5 minutes. Stir in pasta sauce and tomato paste.
Spread the cottage cheese mixture over the cooked noodles in the baking pan. Top with the ground beef mixture.
Bake in the preheated oven for 20 minutes. Sprinkle Cheddar cheese on top and bake until melted and bubbling, about 10 minutes more.