Heat a large skillet over medium-low heat. Add pine nuts; cook and stir until toasted and fragrant, about 5 minutes. Remove from heat.
Fill a large bowl with water. Add lemon juice.
Trim outer leaves from the artichokes and cut 1 1/2 inches off the leaves. Scrape out the hairs in the center. Immerse artichokes in lemon water.
Mix pine nuts, sausage, bread crumbs, and parsley together in a bowl to make stuffing. Remove artichokes from lemon water and stuff with sausage mixture.
Stand artichokes upright in a roasting dish. Fill dish halfway with water. Drizzle olive oil over artichokes. Cover dish with aluminum foil.
Bake in the preheated oven until sausage is browned, 25 to 35 minutes. Uncover and sprinkle Parmesan cheese over artichokes. Continue baking until cheese is melted, about 5 minutes. Cool for 10 minutes before serving.